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Archive for the ‘Endocrinology’ Category

Research – Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism …

Tuesday, August 4th, 2015

Currently, all the full-time physicians in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition are involved in some form of medical research or scholarship, and a third of them have major commitments to laboratory-based research. The research performed within the group varies widely in both type and topic.

The types of research span a continuum from basic science to clinical investigation to new drug trials, and Mayo Clinic has many ways for you to support its research into diseases of the endocrine system.

Mayo Clinic has a long and strong history in endocrine research. Several past and current presidents of national and international endocrine societies have been on the Mayo Clinic staff.

In 1914, Dr. Edward Kendall first purified and structurally identified thyroxine, the principal thyroid hormone. Subsequently, in 1950, he received the Nobel Prize for identifying, isolating and synthesizing adrenocortical steroids including cortisone and introducing them as anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of arthritis, adrenal insufficiency and other such disorders.

In addition to the activities of the full-time staff, the Division supports an extensive training program in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism Research.

The Endocrinology Fellowship Program in the Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education is designed to prepare you for the broad practice of this subspecialty by providing excellent, well-rounded training in clinical and research endocrinology.

Philanthropy provides essential support for endocrine research. Read about how your gift can advance the discovery of endocrinology-related treatments.

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Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism – CHP

Tuesday, July 21st, 2015

Description of Services

The Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Consultation provides diagnostic and therapeutic services for children with diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia and disorders of physical growth, sexual maturation, thyroid function, pituitary function, and calcium and phosphorous metabolism.

The Pediatric Endocrine Testing Center provides diagnostic endocrine tests for patients (both children and adults) in areas of endocrinology and carbohydrate, amino acid, and mineral and lipid metabolism. The center addresses growth abnormalities and the range of conditions that can cause them.

The Nutrition Consultation Service provides consultative and follow-up service by a physician and dietitian for children up to 18 years of age with obesity problems and associated disorders.

Referrals are required from primary care physicians or other Childrens Hospital specialty services. These should be accompanied by a written reason for the referral together with related patient records and growth charts. Referrals for patients enrolled in managed care insurance plans also require authorization from the primary care physician and sometimes from the insurance provider. All necessary referral and authorization forms must be received before the patients visit and include separate authorization for each physician, diabetes nurse educator, dietitian, laboratory and X-ray services. For accurate provider numbers or more information, please call the office number listed.

205 Millers Run Road

Contact Information: 412-692-7337

4055 Monroeville Blvd., Building One

Contact Information: 412-692-7337

2599 Wexford Bayne Rd.

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Functional Endocrinology Of Ohio – Natural Alternative …

Monday, July 6th, 2015

Welcome to Functional Endocrinology of Ohio

To give Hope to those who lost it, Healing to those who need it,and Inspiration to those who seek it to restore people to their God-given health potential is what we do.

For more information or to schedule an appointment in either our Akron or Independence office, click on the blue button above orcall (330) 644-5488 (Akron)or (216) 236-0060(Independence) today! Also, be sure to read about and sign up forour Exclusive Offer below and subscribe to one of our email/video newsletters by clicking on the Newsletter buttonabove. We also offer free workshops and classes. Click on the calendar tab above to check out the schedule and then call or email us to register. You can also view the full 2013 class schedule by clicking here.

Functional Endocrinology of Ohio is a functional, naturalmedicine and chiropractic practice devoted to maintaining the lifetime health and wellness of our clients from a metabolic, neurologic, and structural standpoint. Whether you are suffering from a particular health condition (like diabetes, thyroid, autoimmune, fibromyalgia, MTHFR, etc.) or fromback pain, neck pain, knee pain, neuropathy, headaches, or even just plain old muscular tightness and tension, we can help - naturally!See our full list of conditions treated by clicking on the "Conditions Treated" tab above.

When you come to our office,Functional Endocrinology of Ohio,we will explain the science behind how functional medicine, in conjunction with chiropractic care (in some cases), works to help you with all of your health issues. We will then conduct a full exam and case history to see if our treatment protocols are right for you.If there is a good fit, we willdevelop a treatment plan that is CUSTOMIZED toYOUR condition and health goals.

Ifyou want to find out more, please email us or call (330) 644-5488 or (216) 236-0060 to learn more fromour friendly team. We also welcome referrals, so feel free to use the "Send to a Friend" link located at the bottom of every page to share our health information with your friends and loved ones.

If you would like to stay informed about cutting edge health and wellness issues and treatments,or if you want to start receiving free articles about health and wellness news, please subscribe to ournewsletter, even if you are not a client. Once you are subscribed, you will be receive articles,videos and other resources directly in your email in-box so that you can learn more.

Dr. Keith S. Ungar,Dr. David Starkey, Dr. Andrew Kender

Akron and Cleveland Chiropractic Physicians

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Endocrinology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tuesday, June 30th, 2015

Endocrinology (from Greek , endon, "within"; , krn, "to separate"; and -, -logia) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep, digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception caused by hormones. Specializations include behavioral endocrinology[1][2][3] and comparative endocrinology.

The endocrine system consists of several glands, all in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system. Hormones have many different functions and modes of action; one hormone may have several effects on different target organs, and, conversely, one target organ may be affected by more than one hormone.

In the original 1902 definition by Bayliss and Starling (see below), they specified that, to be classified as a hormone, a chemical must be produced by an organ, be released (in small amounts) into the blood, and be transported by the blood to a distant organ to exert its specific function. This definition holds for most "classical" hormones, but there are also paracrine mechanisms (chemical communication between cells within a tissue or organ), autocrine signals (a chemical that acts on the same cell), and intracrine signals (a chemical that acts within the same cell).[4] A neuroendocrine signal is a "classical" hormone that is released into the blood by a neurosecretory neuron (see article on neuroendocrinology).

Examples of amine hormones

Examples of steroid hormones

Griffin and Ojeda identify three different classes of hormone based on their chemical composition:[5]

Amines, such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine (catecholamines), are derived from single amino acids, in this case tyrosine. Thyroid hormones such as 3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) and 3,5,3,5-tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine, T4) make up a subset of this class because they derive from the combination of two iodinated tyrosine amino acid residues.

Peptide hormones and protein hormones consist of three (in the case of thyrotropin-releasing hormone) to more than 200 (in the case of follicle-stimulating hormone) amino acid residues and can have a molecular mass as large as 30,000 grams per mole. All hormones secreted by the pituitary gland are peptide hormones, as are leptin from adipocytes, ghrelin from the stomach, and insulin from the pancreas.

Steroid hormones are converted from their parent compound, cholesterol. Mammalian steroid hormones can be grouped into five groups by the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, and progestogens. Some forms of vitamin D, such as calcitriol, are steroid-like and bind to homologous receptors, but lack the characteristic fused ring structure of true steroids.

The earliest study of endocrinology began in China.[6] The Chinese were isolating sex and pituitary hormones from human urine and using them for medicinal purposes by 200 BCE.[6] They used many complex methods, such as sublimation of steroid hormones.[6] Another method specified by Chinese textsthe earliest dating to 1110specified the use of saponin (from the beans of Gleditschia sinensis) to extract hormones, but gypsum (containing calcium sulfate) was also known to have been used.[6]

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Lahey Hospital & Medical Center | Endocrinology

Wednesday, May 13th, 2015

The endocrine system is made up of glands throughout the body that regulate the function, growth and development of tissues and organs by secreting hormones directly into the bloodstream. Endocrine disorders develop when a gland malfunctions and secretes either too much or too little of a hormone due to illness, surgical removal or natural causes.

The Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism at Lahey is dedicated to delivering high-quality health care to patients with the full spectrum of endocrine and metabolic conditions. These include diabetes and disorders of the pancreas; weight problems; thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pituitary diseases; calcium and metabolic bone disorders including osteoporosis; as well as male and female hormone imbalance including sexual dysfunction.

Our physicians and programs have been recognized in Boston magazine and U.S. News & World Report. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has awarded the prestigious Education Recognition Certificate to Lahey's diabetes and self-management education program since 2002. Working together with physicians in Lahey's Cardiovascular Medicine Department, we are also breaking new ground in the study of "metabolic syndrome," a condition characterized by high blood pressure, an abnormal cholesterol profile and obesity.

To ensure you receive the highest level of patient care, we provide ongoing continuing education to our staff and training of fellows, residents and medical students. Through research and participation in clinical trials, we strive to contribute to an expanding understanding of endocrinology and the ways in which it relates to your health and quality of life.

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Insights into Veterinary Endocrinology

Monday, May 11th, 2015

In dogs, cats, ferrets, and pet birds, reproductive physiology is under the control of the hypothalamicpituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Many hormones are responsible for estrus and reproduction, the most significant being luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Short-lived GnRH is released in a pulsatile fashion from the hypothalamus and acts on the pars distalis of the pituitary gland to stimulate the synthesis and release of the gonadotropins, FSH and LH (Figure 1). Secretion of these gonadotropins into the circulation lead to changes gonadal hormone production and reproductive function. Chemical modification of the native short-acting GnRH molecule has led to development of long-acting, potent GnRH agonists, which have been used as a medical means of management for a number of reproductive issues and diseases of companion animals (1-3). GnRH agonists may either stimulate estrus or effectively sterilize the patient, depending on the duration of action and the dosage applied. These agents work by initially stimulating gonadotrophin secretion, followed shortly thereafter with desensitization of the GnRH receptor to the GnRH agonist (Figure 2). This results in a temporary but long-term, fully-reversible down-regulation of gonadotrophin secretion, leading to suppression of reproduction function in both male and female animals (4). In recent years, effective low-dose, slow-release implants containing potent GnRH agonists have been released for use in veterinary medicine, especially in Europe and Australia. In companion animals, the deslorelin implant (Suprelorin, Virbac) is the most commonly GnRH agonist used in small animals (5). Deslorelin implants work by lowering pituitary gonadotrophin section. This is not a permanent change but depending on the deslorelin dose, can last up to many months. The implant does not have to be removed, but subsequent doses are needed to sustain the effect.

Unfortunately, GnRH agonist availability is limited in the United States. Although there are GnRH agonists available that are approved for the treatment of human diseases, such as prostate cancer, they are costly and not financially feasible for a pet owner to consider. To date, deslorelin acetate (Suprelorin, Virbac Animal Health, Fort Worth, TX, USA) is the only GnRH agonist that is currently available in the United States but only for the treatment of adrenal disease in ferrets (6). However, it is not legal to use Suporelin in non-ferret species in the United States and extra-label use is explicitly prohibited.

The aim of this blog is to review the applications and treatments of the deslorelin (GnRH agonist) currently used in companion animal medicine.

Deslorelin Use in Intact Male Dogs In male dogs treated with deslorelin, this GnRH agonist leads to decreased gonadotropins secretion and resultant lowered plasma testosterone concentrations, decreased testicular volume, and azoospermia (1-3,7-9). However, the response to this GnRH agonist can be very variable from one dog to another, and the duration of inhibition of testosterone secretion depends both on the concentration of the deslorelin implant and the size of the dog.

Many studies have confirmed that use of GnRH agonists for reversible chemical sterilization in male dogs is both safe and well-tolerated (7-9). Furthermore, repeated implantation can be used to maintain circulating testosterone at low concentrations. If the deslorelin implants are stopped, the treated dogs will regain normal serum testosterone levels within a few weeks, with full recovery of seminal quality once the GnRH implant has lost its efficacy (10,11).

In addition to contraception, GnRH agonists have also been used to reduce the size of the prostate gland, an effect that may be useful in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (12-14).

Deslorelin in Intact Male Cats As in dogs, GnRH agonists are gaining increased importance in feline reproductive medicine (2,3,15). In intact male cats, deslorelin implants induce chemical sterilization, as in dogs. In these cats, testosterone concentrations decline rapidly to undetectable values by 3 weeks after implantation and remain low for weeks in the majority of the tomcats treated. As the circulating testosterone falls, the testicular volume decreases and penile spines disappear.

However, high individual variability has been reported, with the duration of efficacy varying between 6 and 24 months (15-17). Similar to dogs, it is possible to use repeated implantation of deslorelin to sustain the drugs effect.

Deslorelin in Intact Bitches Although deslorelin implants are only approved for male dogs in Europe (and again, not at all in the USA), studies have been performed in the bitch to investigate its use either as a contraceptive or a method of estrus induction (1-3,18-20).

The first step in the mechanism of action of all GnRH agonists is the stimulation in FSH and LH secretion (so-called "flare-up effect") (4). This followed within a few days by a profound hypogonadal effect (i.e., decrease in FSH and LH levels), which is achieved through receptor down-regulation by internalization of receptors. Generally this induced and reversible hypogonadism is the therapeutic goal, as noted above for the male dogs and cats (1-3).

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